Dentistry, as a traditional surgical field, i.e. “Doctor of Dental Surgery” has treated dental caries with surgical approaches requiring removing softened enamel and dentin followed by restoration of the removed parts.  Such approaches are quickly changing as reflected with concepts and moniker such as “active surveillance” protocols as described in the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry guidelines, CAMBRA (Caries Management by Risk Assessment), the “medical model” for treating caries, “self-management” of caries, and the “chronic disease caries model”.   The goals of all these approaches is to manage and consequently arrest the disease process instead of reaching a point where caries have to be treated by a surgical approach.

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